Furnace oil is a dark viscous residual product used as a fuel in different types of combustion equipment. It conforms to IS:1593-1982 for fuel oils. Presently MV-2 grade (kinematic viscosity range of 125 to 180 CSt at 50°C) conforming to this specification is being marketed. It is used in a stricter sense to refer only to the heaviest commercial fuel that can be obtained from crude oil, i.e., heavier than gasoline and naphtha.

Furnace oil is a dark, viscous residual fuel oil which is obtained by blending residual products from various refining processes with suitable diluents usually middle distillates to obtain the required fuel oil grades. These fuel oil grades are similar in nature and have been marketed under different specifications in various countries. In India it is sold under BIS specification IS 1593-1982 (Reaffirmed 1997), Medium Viscosity Grade 2 (MV 2 – 180 cst FO)

Uses of Furnace Oil are:
1. As fuel for Power Generation in DG Sets
2. As fuel for Boilers/ Furnaces/ Air preheater/ Any other Heaters
3. Fuel/ Feedstock in Fertilizer Plants
4. Furnace oil is a class C product having Flash Point above 66°C. Since this is a residual fuel, there has to be gradual filtration system to prevent the filter choking and fuel nozzles choking. Due to its viscous nature, it has to be heated to improve its flow and to a proper temperature for proper atomisation. Normally gear pumps are preferred to avoid cavitation problems.


Base oils are used to manufacture products including lubricating greases, motor oil, and metal processing fluids. Different products require different compositions and properties in the oil. One of the most important factors is the liquid’s viscosity at various temperatures. Whether or not a crude oil is suitable to be made into a base oil is determined by the concentration of base oil molecules as well as how easily these can be extracted.

Base oil is produced by means of refining crude oil. This means that crude oil is heated in order that various distillates can be separated from one another. During the heating process, light and heavy hydrocarbons are separated – the light ones can be refined to make petrol and other fuels, while the heavier ones are suitable for bitumen and base oils.

These lubrication grade oils initially produced from refining crude oil (mineral base oil) or through chemical synthesis (synthetic base oil). Base oil is typically defined as oil with a boiling point range between 550 and 1050 F, consisting of hydrocarbons with 18 to 40 carbon atoms. This oil can be either paraffinic or naphthenic in nature depending on the chemical structure of the molecules.

Group I

Group I base stocks contain less than 90 percent saturates and/or greater than .03 percent sulfur and have a viscosity index greater than or equal to 80 and less than 120.

Group II

Group II base stocks contain greater than or equal to 90 percent saturates and less than or equal to .03 percent sulfur and have a viscosity index greater than or equal to 80 and less than 120.


Light diesel oil, or LDO, is a blend of components from the distillation process of diesel. It is used in engines with an rpm less than 750, such as boilers and furnaces. LDO is also referred to as distillate fuel or marked oil since it is marked with a coloring substance. A number of properties must meet standard requirements for a fuel to be classified as light diesel. Light Diesel Oil (LDO) is a blend of distillate components and small proportion of residual components. It falls under class C category with flash point above 66°C. It is marketed under BIS 15770-2008 specification. LDO is used for slow speed diesel engines (below 750 rpm). It is also used in Lift irrigation pumpsets, DG Sets and as a fuel in certain boilers and furnaces where low sulfur fuel is required.


A lubricant is a substance, usually organic, introduced to reduce friction between surfaces in mutual contact, which ultimately reduces the heat generated when the surfaces move. It may also have the function of transmitting forces, transporting foreign particles, or heating or cooling the surfaces. The property of reducing friction is known as lubricity. In addition to industrial applications, lubricants are used for many other purposes. Other uses include cooking (oils and fats in use in frying pans, in baking to prevent food sticking), bioapplications on humans (e.g. lubricants for artificial joints), ultrasound examination, medical examination.

The lubricant are further classified into as follows-

  1. Automotive Oils
  2. Industrial Oils
  3. Specialties
  4. Greases


Public Distribution System (PDS) Kerosene is an allocated and subsidized product. It is distributed to the customers through the Public Distribution System (PDS) network (Ration shop) of the State Governments / Union Territories (UT). The quarterly allocation of PDS Kerosene to States / UTs are made by the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas (MOP&NG), Government of India. The quantity of PDS Kerosene allocated per Ration card holder is decided by concerned State Governments / UTs.